Tiny ELF Files: Revisited in 2021

October 11, 2021

Quick edit: While I work on a proper update, I'll note here that several posters on reddit and hackernews have pointed out ways to bring the total size of the program down to 112 bytes while still printing the full "Hello, world!" Here are the tricks I wasn't aware of when writing the article:

The Inspiration

Many years ago, I came across this famous article, which I largely credit changing the trajectory of my career. At the time, I was an intern working on a the build system for a fairly large Java code base, so I was particularly susceptible to an article attempting to do the polar opposite of "enterprise Java:" strip away all but the most essential components required to define a valid Linux program. (Before removing even more!)

In short, the article walks through the creation of a 45 byte (!) Linux binary. While the resulting binary is arguably not an entirely "valid" ELF file, it was at least one that Linux could run. Or at least at the time. Perhaps unfortunately, Linux has gotten more strict about ELF loading since the article's original publication (I haven't been able to track down the original date, but it was already around in the early 2000's), and the migration of many systems to 64-bit CPUs has rendered the older 32-bit ELF binary less relevant.

My Goals

Like the article I take for inspriation, I set out to create the smallest ELF file that runs on modern Linux (kernel 5.14 at the time of writing). Like the original article, I will still use the nasm assembler, since it is easy to install, I love its syntax, and it remains one of the best x86 assemblers available.

However, I have a few goals that aren't quite like the original article:

Background Information: The ELF64 File Format

ELF files are used everywhere in Linux (and plenty of other operating systems), and serve as plain executables, static libraries produced by compilers, dynamic libraries, and more. Executable ELF files, the focus of this article, typically contain the following components:

The ELF format has remarkably few hard requirements on where the various pieces of metadata appear in the file, apart from the fact that the top-level ELF header must appear at the beginning. The location of the program header table and section header table may be anywhere in the file, as the top-level ELF header will contain their offsets.

If you want more details, the wikipedia article on the ELF format, and especially this accompanying graphic, offers a sufficient summary that is not worth repeating here.

Starting Point: A Reasonably Valid, Minimal Hello-world ELF

Even those who haven't looked into it have likely figured out that typical gcc-produced executables are full of unecessary stuff for a simple hello-world. For those who need convincing, the original article covers several iterations of a C version, which does not need any updating to be relevant to modern times.

So, rather than reproduce the entirety of the prior article, I'll skip straight to assembly code, and define a valid ELF in its entirety. Here's what I came up with:

Click here for a version without comments.

If you need a quick primer on nasm's syntax:

This assembly directly defines the necessary metadata for an executable 64-bit Linux ELF, so you don't need to use a linker to obtain an executable. Instead, we'll just assemble it using nasm's ability to output flat binary, and call chmod to mark it as executable.

Assuming you save it as hello_world.asm, you can compile and run it using:

nasm -f bin -o hello_world hello_world.asm
chmod +x hello_world

Obviously, you'll need to be using 64-bit Linux and have nasm installed and available on your PATH for this to work. nasm is small and lightweight, and I'd recommend it to anyone interested in writing a significant amount of x86 assembly.

What is included in this file?

This was basically the most minimal "proper" ELF file I could come up with. It contains a list of sections, including a .text section for executable code and a .shstrtab (Section Header String Table) section, which contains the names of the sections (including its own). The entire ELF file is 383 bytes when assembled, which is already decently small, though a far cry from what is possible.

As this initial version was intended to be faithful to the ELF format, viewing its content using standard linux tools works correctly. As we remove more content from it, we will gradually lose these abilities. For example, readelf -SW currently shows that our .text and .shstrtab sections are correctly defined:

There are 3 section headers, starting at offset 0x78:

Section Headers:
  [Nr] Name              Type            Address          Off    Size   ES Flg Lk Inf Al
  [ 0]                   NULL            0000000000000000 000000 000000 00      0   0  0
  [ 1] .text             PROGBITS        0000000000028138 000138 000027 00  AX  0   0 16
  [ 2] .shstrtab         STRTAB          000000000002816e 00016e 000011 00      0   0  1

Similarly, objdump -M intel -d disassembles the code in the .text section without a problem:

Disassembly of section .text:

0000000000028138 <.text>:
   28138:	b8 01 00 00 00       	mov    eax,0x1
   2813d:	bf 01 00 00 00       	mov    edi,0x1
   28142:	48 be 5f 81 02 00 00 	movabs rsi,0x2815f
   28149:	00 00 00 
   2814c:	ba 0f 00 00 00       	mov    edx,0xf
   28151:	0f 05                	syscall 
   28153:	b8 3c 00 00 00       	mov    eax,0x3c
   28158:	bf 00 00 00 00       	mov    edi,0x0
   2815d:	0f 05

Before moving on, we can look at the actual bytes in the ELF, and annotate what they're used for in the file:

Even at a glance, the section-related information seems to be taking too much space. As mentioned earlier, this should not be needed if we only care about loading the ELF into memory and running it. But can it be simply taken out?

Removing Section Information

The answer is yes. We can just delete the section information.

To do so, set the number of section headers to 0 and delete the sections. Here is the assembly afterwards. It can be assembled and run the same way as the previous version. I've also taken out any comments, apart from those annotating the changed lines:

Removing the section information brings the file size down to 173 bytes, saving over 200 bytes from our original attempt (which was already small)! Obviously, this means that our ELF loses some useful metadata, meaning that some utilities, like objdump now have trouble finding the code. But nothing is entirely broken yet. For example, readelf -SW still works, and correctly points out that the ELF contains no sections.

Once again, we can dump the actual bytes in the ELF to see where the space is going. There's nothing too interesting here; it's like before, but the section information is gone:

So what's next? We can't simply delete any more information: we need the code, the "Hello, world!" string, the ELF header, and the program header. However, there's still one more thing that we can shrink without breaking anything: the code itself.

Reducing the Code Size

The x86 bytecode is certainly not the largest part of our file, but it still is not as size-optimized as it could be---accounting for 39 out of the 173 bytes in the ELF. Currently, our program's entire code is only eight instructions. Not bad! But we can replace them with shorter instructions. Since there are only eight to begin with, I'll just go through them one at a time:

After making all of these changes, the assembly looks like this:

The code can be assembled and run in the same way as the previous examples, and shortening the executable bytecode won't have any impact on the ELF format. Making these changes reduces the file size to 157 bytes---a reduction by 16 bytes, and still a reasonably valid Linux executable. We went from eight instructions taking 39 bytes to ten instructions taking 23 bytes. The hex dump of the bytes hasn't changed much from before:

The code has noticably shortened, and 157 bytes is a very tiny executable! Additionally, despite lacking plenty of metadata, there is nothing totally "broken" about this program---it has a full, correctly-populated ELF and program header, and small chunk of code to run. In other words, there's no good reason for Linux to refuse to run this. That's about to change.

Moving the Code

It turns out that shortening the code has another benefit: it uses shorter instructions, which we can break into fine-grained short chunks, and join them together with jmp instructions. But why is this useful?

If you've followed my previous suggestions and read this article's inspriation, you likely know where I'm going: several fields in the ELF and program header aren't validated by Linux's ELF loader, and we can overwrite these with our code. This allows us to completely remove the bytes taken by code in our program by dual-purposing existing header bytes.

But what header bytes can be clobbered and replaced? We can easily test this: replace them with random junk in the assembly, and see if the program still runs. I actually did so, and recorded the results in a spreadsheet:

In this spreadsheet, each byte in the ELF and program header are shown on separate lines. Fields that can be overwritten with junk are highlighted in green, and fields that are checked or required are highlighted in red. We'll take advantage of this to pack our code (and even the "Hello, world!\n" string) into unused bytes (well, technically, unvalidated bytes). The new assembly looks like this:

As before, this can be assembled and run the same way as all of the examples so far. It now only takes 126 bytes: a reduction by a full 31 bytes due to removing all code bytes and 8 bytes from the "Hello, world" string. Unfortunately, we can't pack the full string into any available gaps, since it requires 14 bytes, and no sequence of 14 clobber-able bytes exists in the headers. As it stands, the ELF and program header require 120 bytes, and the string "sticks out" past the end of the program header by an additional 6 bytes.

At this point, several of the common tools we discussed earlier do not like the fact that we clobbered so many fields in the headers. For example, readelf -WlS now complains that the section header offset is nonzero. The objdump utility simply gives a File truncated error when we try to use it on the file. While not very specific, I suspect this error is also due to the section header offset, since the other fields we clobbered were simply padding, the unused physical address, and the alignment of segment in memory. While clobbering the alignment seems like it could be breaking objdump, I actually verified that it isn't: setting the segment's aligment back to 1 (its value prior to clobbering it with the string) did not cause objdump to start working again.

Finally, the hex dump of this current version has gotten pretty interesting, and is a good illustration of how we contorted the file:

However, we're not quite done yet!

The Final Version

There's still one thing we can do: just like we overlapped the code, we can also overlap the ELF and program headers themselves.

The end of the ELF header contains the number of program headers, followed by the size and number of section headers, and ends with the index of the section containing the section name table. We absolutely must leave the number of program headers as 1 and the number of section headers as 0, but it turns out the size of a section header and the index of the section-name table can be clobbered as long as we aren't defining any sections. Individually, each of these fields is only two bytes.

What happens if we start our first program header immediately after the number of program headers, though? It turns out that this works perfectly: even though the program header starts with a four-byte type field that must not be zero, only the bottom byte of the field is set---the rest are zero. So, if we start our program header six bytes before the end of the ELF header, the type field overlaps with the clobber-able section header size; ELF header field, as well as the number of section headers. However, the bytes overlapping the number of section headers are zero: just what we need. Afterwards, the program header's flags field (which also can't be zero) overlaps the section-name-string-table field, which, as mentioned, seems to be unused so long as we don't have any sections.

The assembly for this program hasn't changed very much, but it does happen to be our final version:

As always, this code can be assembled and run in the same way as the first example. After the six-byte overlap between headers, it is now down to 120 bytes. Ordinarily, this would be the same size as the sum of the ELF header and a single program header---the smallest you could expect for an executable ELF file containing no code at all! For completeness, we can also look at the final bytecode we produced:

Can we go farther?

120 bytes is quite a feat---it could fit in a single text message. It takes up less than 1/34th of a single 4kB page; far smaller than we have any reason to care about. If we compromised our original goal of writing a full "Hello, world!" program, we could shave off six more bytes, for a total size of 114 bytes. Feel free to try this yourself, by modifying the assembly so that the "Hello, world!\n" string is exactly 8 bytes. For example, replacing the relevant line with message: db `Hi!!!!!\n` will produce a working 114-byte executable.

Trying to shorten the string any farther will result in the program header being too short, producing an exectuable that Linux will refuse to run. This brings up an interesting point. This means that even if we decide to use the original article's "return 42" program rather than our hello-world, we wouldn't get below 114 bytes---the limiting factor is entirely our inability to further overlap the ELF header and single required program header.

But can we really not overlap the headers any more? After all, the original article managed to shrink their ELF all the way down to 45 bytes. Sadly, this is simply no longer possible: it requires Linux to automatically pad the incomplete remainder of the ELF and program header with zeros, which it no longer does. However, the original 45-byte version starts the program header immediately after the 0x7f, E, L, F signature at the start of the file. Is really impossible for us to find a better way to overlap our ELF header and program header?

Unfortunately, it seems to me like we're doing the best that is currently possible. Refer back to the screenshot of the spreadsheet showing which bytes can be clobbered in the ELF header and program header. The larger sizes of the 64-bit program header significantly limit any options for overlap, and after an exhaustive byte-by-byte check, I am confident that we can't do better, at least on modern, x86-64 Linux. For completeness' sake, here are the steps I took to reach such a conclusion:

  1. The program header offset in the ELF header and the size in file field in the program header must both fit within a single byte (as otherwise it would imply a file larger than 255 bytes). They can't be identical, either, so these two 8-byte fields can't overlap at all.
  2. The size of the headers and the fact that the ELF header must start at the start of the file, combined with the previous point, means that the size in file field in the program header must come entirely after the ELF header's program header offset field.
  3. If we try to address the previous point by placing the size in file field immediately after the program header offset field, then the program header's type and flags fields (which can't be zero) end up in the program header offset field instead, which, as mentioned, can't be clobbered.
  4. If we try to address the previous point by moving the program header's flags and type fields immediately after the program header offset field, then the ELF header size and program header entry size fields of the ELF header end up overlapping with the program header's offset in file field, which must be at most a single byte, can't match the ELF header or program header sizes, and therefore can't be clobbered. Unfortunately, these size fields are checked by the Linux kernel (which didn't seem to be the case in the older article).
  5. If we move the program header's flags and type fields so that they are immediately after the two aforementioned size fields, then they overlap the ELF header's number of program headers field, which must be 1. Our program header's type is also 1, so good news, right? Unfortunately, it won't work... since this overlap would cause the flags field to fall on the number of section headers. The number of section headers must be zero, and flags can't be zero because the readable+executable bits must be set.
  6. Finally, if we move the program header's flags field past program-header and ELF-header sizes, it will be overlapping the section header size field in the ELF header. This ends up working, for the reasons discussed earlier, and is where our final version stands.


Even though it's not nearly as impressive as the 45-byte executable possible years ago, many of the extreme minimization tricks continue to be possible on modern 64-bit Linux. 120 bytes (or as low as 114 bytes) is an incredibly tiny program in days when software bloat is too often simply accepted.

Obviously, plenty of what we did went far beyond eliminating "bloat", but the message remains valuable: it may be possible to remove more software bloat than you think! Whether that justifies the effort involved is another debate.